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After three weeks of debate, the French deputies must adopt this Tuesday the climate bill, inspired by the work of the Citizen’s Convention for the climate desired by Emmanuel Macron. The text is expected in the Senate in June.
At the end of weeks of passionate debates, the National Assembly must adopt Tuesday, May 4 the climate bill, touted by the majority as a “marker of the five-year term” but decried by environmentalists for its “inadequacies” in the face of “the emergency. climate “.
The text, put to the vote at the end of the afternoon at first reading, was the subject of more than 110 hours of discussions in the hemicycle – among the records under the Fifth Republic – for three weeks until mid- April. He is expected in the Senate in June.
Inspired by the work of the Citizen’s Convention for the Climate (CCC) wanted by Emmanuel Macron, this text includes a battery of measures, including the elimination of certain domestic airlines in the event of alternatives of less than 2 hours and 30 minutes by train, the creation of an ecocide offense or the ban on the rental of thermal sieve housing in 2028.
In the hemicycle, the Minister of Ecological Transition Barbara Pompili, former EELV, defended a text of “practical ecology” and “common sense”, “a real global cultural shift”.
However, the government finds itself at odds with members of the Citizens’ Convention who consider their proposals “unraveled” and some of whom participated in demonstrations in favor of a “real climate law” on March 28.
Despite “some progress”, NGOs like Greenpeace and the Climate Action Network denounce a “tremendous mess” and “climate cynicism” with a “bill to pretend to act”.
“15 years late”
Among the deputies, Matthieu Orphelin, ex-LREM close to Nicolas Hulot, will vote “against this law which is 15 years late” while the former minister Delphine Batho castigates a “shipwreck”.
Conversely, the right has risen to the niche against a “punitive ecology” and “taxation”, promising the defense of a “positive ecology” during the presidential election. LR deputies will present their “counter-project” on Tuesday morning.
At the end of February, the High Council for the climate, an independent body, had pointed out “the reduced scope” of certain measures, with regard to the objectives of reduction of greenhouse gases. The European Union has also just strengthened its ambitions in 2030, to reduce emissions by 55% compared to 1990.
“It is not this bill alone” which makes it possible to achieve the objectives on the French side (drop of 40% between 1990 and 2030 at this stage), but “the sum” of the measures of several laws, and the “30 billion of the greening axis of the recovery plan “, qualifies the Ministry of Ecological Transition.
And the general rapporteur Jean-René Cazeneuve (LREM) underlines the “significant advances” during the debates, with the impact limited by the health crisis.
The deputies thus extended the ban on the rental of “thermal strainers” (housing classified F and G in energy performance) in 2028, to housing classified E in 2034. They also voted “individualized support” for households in each stage of the renovation and a partial guarantee for loans (“advance-transfer”) from low-income families.
“Not the first nor the last law”
Measures in favor of cycling have also been added, such as the widening of the premium for conversion to the purchase of electric bicycles. For air, the elimination of certain domestic lines (between Paris-Orly and Nantes, Bordeaux or Lyon) animated the debates.
Marked by the “yellow vests” crisis, born of a carbon tax on fuels, the government insisted on the “crest line” between “ecological ambition” and “social acceptability”.
A clear caution about heavy goods vehicles, a sector very hostile to the text. The LREMs thus underline the many “stages” before the possible establishment of a regional ecotax in the voluntary communities.
“This is not the first law nor the last, but we climb the stairs four by four,” assures the rapporteur Cazeneuve, who claims an ecology “of progress”, against him according to the “decrease” of the Greens.