“Before the movement” magazine: civil rights at the courthouse

“Before the movement” magazine: civil rights at the courthouse


There was a time when “civil rights” did not have the same meaning as it does today. “In the century following emancipation,” Dylan Penningroth tells us in his decidedly subversive book “Before the Movement,” “civil rights went from being the fundamental rights of free people to being the rights of minorities not to be not be discriminated against. ” Mr. Penningroth, a professor of law and history at the University of California at Berkeley, goes on to write: “In 1866, ‘civil rights’ meant contract and property rights,” while in 1954, ” civil rights meant ending racial rights.” discrimination at work, at school, when voting.

This profoundly altered sense of what we know, or think we know, as a simple and obvious term has major implications for African American history in the century before the modern civil rights era. “The notion of black history as a struggle for freedom,” the author asserts, “has reduced our view of black life to the few areas of black life where federal law and social movements have makes the difference. . . . Overshadowed are many other aspects of life that black people might have cared about just as much, but which do not fit into a story of freedom – things like marriage and divorce, care of the elderly, property ownership, management churches and businesses.

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With a penchant for words, Eleon Smith began writing at an early age. As editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, he honed his skills telling impactful stories. Smith went on to study journalism at Columbia University, where he graduated top of his class. After interning at the New York Times, Smith landed a role as a news writer. Over the past decade, he has covered major events like presidential elections and natural disasters. His ability to craft compelling narratives that capture the human experience has earned him acclaim. Though writing is his passion, Eleon also enjoys hiking, cooking and reading historical fiction in his free time. With an eye for detail and knack for storytelling, he continues making his mark at the forefront of journalism.
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